How Sikhs have been fooled….

Are we celebrating the birth of Guru Nanak Ji or his wayward eldest son Baba Sri Chand Ji? And why?

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| Opinion | 22 Nov 2016 | Asia Samachar |

 

By Giani Jagtar Singh Jachak (Translated by Jarnail Singh Arshi)

History is proof that before 1790 in Darbar Sahib, Amrtisar, and up to 1825 in Nankana Sahib, the birth of Guru Nanak Ji, the founder of Sikhi, was celebrated on 1st of Vaisakh – which is the actual birth date of  Guru Nanak ji in 1469. Then, how, when and why was this date changed?

None now disputes that the birth of Guru Nanak took place on Vaisakh suede tin samvat 1576 equivalent to April 1469. There is not much need to stress this point. After much discussion and research by various academicians and historians such as Karam Singh, the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) in its 2003 Nanaksahi Calendar decided to approve this date. It’s a different matter, however, that despite coming to the right conclusions, tradition is still uppermost and the wrong date is being celebrated.

Historically, it is true that before 1790, the Darbar Sahib, Amritsar, celebrated the birth, or Gurpurab, of Guru Nanakji on 1st Vaisakh in April each year. The same was observed in Nankanna Sahib well  till 1825. Macauliffe in his book History of the Sikhs writes that on Katak Pooranmashi, the Ram Teerath Mela used to be a big affair in Amritsar with huge crowds gathering.

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ਕੱਤਕ ਦੀ ਪੂਰਨਮਾਸ਼ੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦਾ ਜਨਮ ਦਿਨ ਹੈ ਜਾਂ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਦੇ ਆਕੀ ਪੁੱਤ ਬਾਬਾ ਸ਼੍ਰੀ ਚੰਦ ਦਾ ?

Giani Sant Singh, the Granthi at Darbar Sahib, decided to begin celebrating Guru Nanak Ji Birth Gurpurab on Katak Pooranmashi date. His intention  probably was to wean away Sikhs from the Ram Teerath Mela and his political connections enabled him to make other Gurdwaras in Punjab follow suit. Despite this, however, the Gurdwara Janam Asthaan Nankana Sahib kept on celebrating Guru Nanak Parkash Purab in April – this went on until 1825. This was also despite the influence of the Gurbilas Patshahi Chhevin book which had encouraged the ikadei ishnaan at Nankanna Sahib in Kartik Pooranmashi.

Historian Karam Singh writes: “…it’s the year 1925 and the first year that the Gurpurab of Guru Nanakji was changed from April to November. Prior to this, no one even heard of this date.” If this continues for about 60 years more, he laments, the people will begin to think this must be the original date from time immemorial. He mentions the role of Giani Sant Singh in this date change. (Book: Katak ki Visakh, Page 137).

Historically, when the Third Nanak, Guru Amar Dass ji, decided to call for Sikhs to gather at one palce to centralise the teachings and maryada, Guru ji chose the date in Vaisakh. And when Guru Gobind Singh Ji chose to reveal the Khalsa, he chose Vaisakh as well. This is not a mere coincidence. The Khalsa is the fauj of Akaal Purakh. The Aad is Akal Purakh, the Aad Guru is Guru Nanakji, the Khalsa follows the completion of the AAD MISSION of Guru Nanakji on Vaisakhi 1699. This is a perfectly normal conclusion of events. After Vaisakhi 1699 till long after the passing of Gurgadee to the Aad Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji on the passing on of Guru Gobind Singh ji in 1708, the Khalsa met on Vaisakhi each year because the Sikh leaders and religious mukhees were well aware of the significance of the birth date of Aad Guru Nanak Ji.

Macauliffe mentions that the Raam Teerath Fair used to attract large crowds in Amritsar and it was held in November’s full moon and that many Sikhs used to attend as well. Giani Sant Singh was given the important task of beginning the continuous katha exposition of the Aad Sri Guru Grant Sahib Ji. It ran from 1790 to 1822. Sant Singh was heavily Nirmala/Udasee influenced and had numerous Nirmala scholars around him. He must have been under this influence when he decided to sync the Raam Teerath Fair date with the Parkash Purab of Guru Nanak ji to divert Sikhs towards the Darbar Sahib instead. These Nirmalas and Udasees knew very well that mid-November was also the birth date of the Baba Sri Chand, the eldest son of Guru Nanak ji who was rejected for succession by Guru Nanak ji due to many reasons. He then began the Udasee sect. Thus it was in their interest to begin celebrating Sri Chand’s birth in Darbar Sahib and Nankana Sahib to push his legitimacy despite the Gurgadee being passed to Guru Angad Ji. This continues till today whereby a small section of Sikhs continue to celebrate Sri Chand even though he is rejected by mainstream Sikhs. Udasee sources reveal the birthdate of Sri Chand as mid-November smavat 1551 (1494). Since Sri Chand was being rejected, the Udasees thought of this clever scheme to switch the Vasakh Gurpurab to November and in a way celebrate Sri Chands birth date and grab the chance to do katha of Sri Chand under guise of Baba Nanak’s Gurpurab. They knew very well that the only way to gather large numbers of Sikhs was on Gurpurabs. Many derawallahs do the same trick even till today by joining their waddeh baba jis’ birthdates to Gurpurabs.

Famous Sikh academician Prof Piara Singh Padam in his book Sikh Smapardavalee mentions this joining of Sri Chand to Guru Nanak ji’s Gurpurab in around about way. He writes in a  footnote: Baba Sri Chand was born in the House of Nanak in Bikremee 1551 in mid-November Katak Pooran Mashee day. Bedi Daljit Singh in his family tradition, writes  the same information in his book Sri Chola Sahib Sakhi. The book Guru Nanak Bans Parkash the writer Sukhwasiraam also writes this date.

It’s possible that the Udasees wanted to celebrate both father and son on the same date and thus force Sikhs to acknowledge Sri Chand as well. Thus was born the “well meaning and economically beneficial advice” of the Udasees and Nirmalas to Giani Sant Singh’s receptive mind that Guru Nanak ji’s Gurpurab ought to be celebrated on Raam Teerath day to entice Sikhs away from that fair. On the surface, it looks very pro-Sikhi but the sugary coated poison within escaped attention. The “basis” of this change was also to be the Niranjan written totally false Bhai Bala Janam Sakhi. This is the one and only Janamsakhi that lists Guru Nanak ji’s birth in November. All other sources, including Bhai Gurdas ji’s Vaars, declare the date to be 1st Vaisakh.

The low level thought process working behind this fake Bhai Bala Janam Sakhi was the Niranjannee tactic to prove that the birth of their competitor Guru was on an inopportune day – Pooran Mashi Katak. A baby born on this date is considered of ill luck and is usually given away to the Brahmin, who in return asks for certain gifts, etc. In exchange, he “blesses” the bad luck bearing baby and returns it to the parents. The intention was to prove that Guru Nanak ji was of low birth, brought bad luck and was unholy. Seemingly, two self-contradicting theories at work here.

Historian Karam Singh writes in his book: ”Dear readers, I am in complete agreement with the late Sardar Gurmukh Singh (Singh Sabha movement founder), that the Bhai Bala Janam Sakhi is a totally false, fraudulent book from start to finish. It’s chock full of Guru nindya (bad mouthing the Sikh Gurus), creating false stories, wild stories, totally unbelievable stories, tall tales. This book should be buried miles deep…so deep never to be found ever again.”

In the later part of the 18th century, when the Sikhs were fighting battle for survival, Sikh heads were being rewarded with handsome sum of 80 pieces of gold. Sikhs were being hunted day and night, from pillar to post. The Udasis and the Nirmalas grabbed the Sikh gurdwaras and Sikh Granths and manuscripts. The rewriting and adulteration of these began in earnest with Brahmin-based maryadas implemented and enforced. The entire Sikh Panth was on horseback fighting for its very survival. Udasees and Nirmalas like Sant Singh began their nefarious designs to implement whatever maryadas and however they liked, even if they were totally opposed to the Gurbani in Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS).

The Chuurramnn Kavi Bhai Santokh Singh writer of Suraj Parkash was a student of Giani Sant Singh. That’s why his book is so heavily Nirmala-influenced. Due to that book katha being done, the booksellers and printers took the economic opportunity to print and sell the fake Bhai Bala Janam Sakhi in vast numbers. This was because the Bhai Bala Janam Sakhi was the prose rendition of Kavi Santokh Singh’s Suraj Parkash. Even the later Giani Gian Singh Sri Guru Panth Parkash and Tavarikh Guru Khalsa took this same road of Udasee/Nirmala version of Sikh history as it was of most economic benefit.

One of the benefits of the Singh Sabha Lehr was the total stoppage of Sri Chand Katha in gurdwaras and the removal of Hindu demi gods and Shivlings from gurdwaras and even Darbar Sahib, Amrtisar. These moortees (statues) were shifted under protest to the Durgian Mandir made in exact replica of Darbar Sahib by the Hindus.

Even today, Udasees and Nirmalas celebrate Baba Sri Chand’s birthday as a Gurpurab on the same day but not in gurdwaras. This day is also a public holiday granted by the Punjab state government. Looks like the battle is far from over. The parallel railway tracks continue to run.

It is up to the awakened Sikhs to put pressure on the SGPC to revert to the 2003 Nanak Shahi Calendar and celebrate the Guru Nanak Parkash Ushtav on Vaisakhi Day in April. This will bring complete meaning to the divine mission of Guru Nanak: Aad Guru = Khalsa Panth.

 

 Giani Jagtar Singh Jachak
Giani Jagtar Singh Jachak

The original article, ‘Katak Di Puranmashi Guru Nanak Sahib Da Janam Hey Ja Uhna Dey Aaki Puter Baba Sri Chand Da?’ by Giani Jagtar Singh Jachak was published by Khalsa News (14 Nov 2016). Formerly head granthi at Gurdwara Glenckow, US, Gaini Jagtar is now a full time Sikh missionary parcahrak. He was given 1st ranking in All India Gurbani Paath Competiton in 1979 held at Takht Damdamm Sahib.

TRANSLATOR Giani Jarnail Singh Arshi is a retired Malaysian government  teacher and now full time Gurbani researcher. and writer. He is also the Punjabi Editor for Community Times Canada Weekly.

  • This is the personal opinion of the writer or publication and does not necessarily represent the views of the Asia Samachar.

 

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Are our Gurdwaras Dysfunctional? The Assessment. (Asia Samachar, 9 Jan 2016)

Nanak Shah Faqir: An Epic of Sorts – PART ONE  (Asia Samachar, 4 June 2015)

 

3 COMMENTS

  1. Date of Birth of Guru Nanak Sahib
    (Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer)*
    Guru Nanak Sahib, son of (Mata) Tripta and (Baba) Kalyan Das (son of Baba Shiv Narayan and grandson of Baba Ram Narayan Bedi, was born on 20th of 1469 (Julian Calendar), at village Rai-Bhoi-Di-Talwandi (now Naanakana Sahib).
    Another date (the 15th of April 1469) has also been mentioned by some writers as Guru’s birth date. This mistake occurred due to distortion by Mehrban (who wrote a biography of Guru Nanak suiting to his planning to establish himself in the Sikh world). Meharban, who had been functioning under the guidance of the Brahmins, who assert that a child born in Katak month of Bikrami calender (October-November of Julian/ Gregorian calendar or Common Era/ C.E.) is in-auspicious; hence he changed the date of birth of Guru Nanak. The date 15th of April 1469 has been accepted by those who have followed Janamsakhi Meharban Wali. Well known writer Karam Singh Historian too accepted the Visakh (April) date. Karam Singh, in his book Katak Ke Visakh, rejected the authenticity of the book Bhai Bale Wali Janamsakhi and proved that it (book) was the work of the descendants of Handal (of Jandiala, district Amritsar), who wanted to present Handal as superior to Guru Nanak. Karam Singh Historian totally rejected this ‘Janamsakhi’ and with this he rejected even the date of the birth of Guru Nanak Sahib. But, Karam Singh made a mistake; he accepted Meharban’s date of birth of Guru Nanak without analysing it. (Meharban’s Janamsakhi is the basis of the rest of the Janamsakhis, i.e. Bhai Mani Singh Wali Janamsakhi (in fact written by Surat Singh Nirmala), Puratan Janamakhi, Wilayat Wali Janamsakhi etc).
    Was Guru Nank’s birth anniversary ever celebrated on April 15th?

    This is another big gossip that before 18th century Guru Nanak’s birthday was celebrated in April and it was Sant Singh Giani priest who changed the date to October. It is very funny. It was Sant Singh’s father Surat Singh Nirmala (who wrote a Janamsakhi in the name of Bhai Mani Singh) who tried to establish the date of Visakh. There is not a single instant of Guru’s birthday being celebrated in April. Not a single source mentions it, whereas there are at least three major instances mentioning that Guru Hargobind and Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib celebrated Guru Nanak’s birthday on the Pooranmashi of Katalk (on the basis of 20 October 1469). These include: Bhai Gurdas, 1630s (Kabit no. 345); Guru Kian Sakhian, 1790, by Swarup Singh Kaushish; Sakhi Pothi, 1726 (unknown author), Kesar Singh Chhiber, 1780, Bansavalinama Dasan Patsahina Da; Gulab Singh Nirmala, 1753, Guru Parnali; Sant Singh Chhhiber, early 19th Century, Janamsakhi Baba Nanak; Ram Sukh Rao, c. 1820s, Jassa Singh Binod & Sri Fateh Singh Partap Parbhakar, Santokh Singh, 1832, Nanak Parkash; Gulab Singh IInd, 1851, Gurparnali; Nihal Singh – Gurmukh Singh, 1890, Khursheed Khalsa; Sondha Kavi, end of 18h century, Guru Bansavali; Tara Singh Narotam, 1884, Gur Teerath Sangrah, J.D. Cunningam, 1848, History of the Sikhs and several others. (For analytical study of this issue, read the book Nanakshahi Calender, 2010, by Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer).

    Other distortions by Meharban
    Only Meharban has written that Guru Nanak was born at Chahal, at the residence of his maternal grandfather (Nana in Punjabi), hence his name Nanak; and Meharban further says that Guru Nanak spent first seven years of his life at Chahal;, all other writers accept that he was born at Talwandi (now Nanakana Sahib). It is remarkable that several places of Nanakana Sahib are associated with Guru Nanak’s childhood whereas there is not a single such place at Chahal village. It seems that all the wrong traditions about Guru Nanak had been started by Meharban in his Janamsakhi; including his date (Visakh) and place (Chahal) of birth and date of death (22.9.1539 instead of 7.9.1539) etc. Meharban shows Guru Nanak wearing Janeo and various other distortions go to his credit.

    How many years did Guru Nanak live in the world?

    Those writers who have tried to establish the date of 15th April, they have also propagated that Guru Nanak lived in this world for 70 years 5 months and 10 days, whereas the truth is that, he lived in this world for 69 years 10 months and 19 days (in calculations of different writers there is difference of a few days).

    Why did Meharban do so?

    Meharban (son of Pirthi Chand, and grandson of Guru Ramdas, who had been rejected as a successor of the Guru) was under the influence of the Brahmins. That is why he wanted to give some special date for the birth of the founder of Sikhism. He chose the mythical date of the beginning of the so-called ‘satyug’ (Golden Age or Age of Truth), which is Akshay Teej (Akshay Tritya, Visakh sudi 3). The Hindus have preached this as the date for the birth of their great gods like Parsu Ram, Nar Narayan, Haygriv (a deity of Vishnu). This date is so pious that the doors of Badri Nath temple are opened on this date. Charity, donations, ritual baths and meditation of this day is considered as most pious. Meharban chose this date so as to preach that the birth of Guru Nanak was the beginning of Satyuga.

    *hsdilgeer@yahoo.com

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